Saturday, March 15, 2008

Analysing matter

particles can be atoms, molecules and ions.

The atom is the smallest, indivisible particle of an element. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike and are different from the atoms of all other elements.

Molecules are the smallest particles of an element or compound that are made up of two or more atoms. Ions are particles that are charged due to loss or gain of electrons

Ions contain charges
Ions which are positively charged are called cations.
Ions which are negatively charged are called anions.

Matter can either exist as an element or a compound
chemical elements have the same number of atoms.
an element consist of only 1 type of atom
can be either atoms or molecules

A compound is any substance composed identical molecules consisting of atoms of two or more atoms
made up of either molecules or ions

Kinetic Theory of Matter
The characteristics of matter can be described using the kinetic theory of matter.
The kinetic theory of matter explains the state of matter in solid, liquid and gaseous states based on the following assumptions:
The gas consists of very small particles, each of which has a mass.
These molecules are in constant, random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container.
There are forces of attraction between particles of matter. These attraction forces will increase as the distance between the particles becomes closer.
The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the temperature of the system. The higher the temperature, the higher the kinetic energy of the particles.

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